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Ac magnitude | Figure 2: The RC Circuit 5. The accuracy of this type of RMS measurement is independent of waveshape. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The inherent flaw in this method was that turning off a single lamp or other electric device affected the voltage supplied to all others on the same circuit. Upload document Create flashcards. The voltage measured in volts and current measured in amps in the circuit fluctuate ac magnitude to the alternating current, as seen in the readings on the meters in the circuit. When you increase it? |

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Use apple pencil with macbook pro | Open-core transformers with a ratio near were connected with their primaries ac magnitude series to allow use of a high voltage for transmission while presenting a low voltage to the lamps. Speed it up for a slightly more realistic sense as to how fast these changes actually occur. The advantage is that lower rotational speeds can be used to generate the same frequency. Calculate the ratio of the CH1 and CH2 pk-pk measurements to determine the measured gain magnitude and record on your data sheet. This is known as the peak or crest value of an AC waveform: Figure below. Using any method, set the waveform generator for mV pk-pk using a 50 source sine wave. |

What is the difference between "AC magnitude" and "Amplitude" in Cadence? Thread starter qiushidaren Start date Aug 24, Status Not open for further replies. BFE Activity points 2, What is the difference between "AC magnitude" and "Amplitude" in Cadence, thank you in advance! SkyHigh Advanced Member level 1.

AC magnitude is used for frequency independent composites such as device noise or spurious or floor noise. Amplitude is used for a periodic signal like clock, thus frequency dependent. Click to expand It explains there. Re: AC magnitude SkyHigh said:. Re: AC magnitude what a pity, I can't find a Cadence Design Manual in my computer, so can someone else explain some details about the difference between AC magnitude and Amplitude in Cadence to me?

Thank you in advance! AC magnitude Hi,"AC magnitude" is used in "ac" analysis and it is an ac small signal amplitude. Re: AC magnitude chenmy said:. Hi,"AC magnitude" is used in "ac" analysis and it is an ac small signal amplitude. Similar threads O. What is the difference between DC and transition simulations in Cadence? What is the difference between these layout cadence tools Started by elec-eng Jul 18, Replies: 2.

Part and Inventory Search. Welcome to EDABoard. This site uses cookies to help personalise content, tailor your experience and to keep you logged in if you register. By continuing to use this site, you are consenting to our use of cookies. Accept Learn more…. The effects of these two AC voltages powering a load would be quite different: Figure below.

A square wave produces a greater heating effect than the same peak voltage triangle wave. This amplitude measure is known simply as the average value of the waveform. If we average all the points on the waveform algebraically that is, to consider their sign , either positive or negative , the average value for most waveforms is technically zero, because all the positive points cancel out all the negative points over a full cycle: Figure below.

In other words, we calculate the practical average value of the waveform by considering all points on the wave as positive quantities, as if the waveform looked like this: Figure below. Conversely, polarity-sensitive meter movements vibrate uselessly if exposed to AC voltage or current, their needles oscillating rapidly about the zero mark, indicating the true algebraic average value of zero for a symmetrical waveform.

Although the mathematics of such an amplitude measurement might not be straightforward, the utility of it is. Consider a bandsaw and a jigsaw, two pieces of modern woodworking equipment. Both types of saws cut with a thin, toothed, motor-powered metal blade to cut wood.

But while the bandsaw uses a continuous motion of the blade to cut, the jigsaw uses a back-and-forth motion. The comparison of alternating current AC to direct current DC may be likened to the comparison of these two saw types: Figure below. The problem of trying to describe the changing quantities of AC voltage or current in a single, aggregate measurement is also present in this saw analogy: how might we express the speed of a jigsaw blade?

A bandsaw blade moves with a constant speed, similar to the way DC voltage pushes or DC current moves with a constant magnitude. A jigsaw blade, on the other hand, moves back and forth, its blade speed constantly changing. What is more, the back-and-forth motion of any two jigsaws may not be of the same type, depending on the mechanical design of the saws. One jigsaw might move its blade with a sine-wave motion, while another with a triangle-wave motion.

To rate a jigsaw based on its peak blade speed would be quite misleading when comparing one jigsaw to another or a jigsaw with a bandsaw! Despite the fact that these different saws move their blades in different manners, they are equal in one respect: they all cut wood, and a quantitative comparison of this common function can serve as a common basis for which to rate blade speed.

Picture a jigsaw and bandsaw side-by-side, equipped with identical blades same tooth pitch, angle, etc. We might say that the two saws were equivalent or equal in their cutting capacity. More specifically, we would denote its voltage value as being 10 volts RMS.

RMS amplitude measurement is the best way to relate AC quantities to DC quantities, or other AC quantities of differing waveform shapes, when dealing with measurements of electric power. For other considerations, peak or peak-to-peak measurements may be the best to employ. For instance, when determining the proper size of wire ampacity to conduct electric power from a source to a load, RMS current measurement is the best to use, because the principal concern with current is overheating of the wire, which is a function of power dissipation caused by current through the resistance of the wire.

Peak and peak-to-peak measurements are best performed with an oscilloscope, which can capture the crests of the waveform with a high degree of accuracy due to the fast action of the cathode-ray-tube in response to changes in voltage. Because the mechanical inertia and dampening effects of an electromechanical meter movement makes the deflection of the needle naturally proportional to the average value of the AC, not the true RMS value, analog meters must be specifically calibrated or mis-calibrated, depending on how you look at it to indicate voltage or current in RMS units.

The accuracy of this calibration depends on an assumed waveshape, usually a sine wave. Electronic meters specifically designed for RMS measurement are best for the task. Some instrument manufacturers have designed ingenious methods for determining the RMS value of any waveform.

The heating effect of that resistance element is measured thermally to give a true RMS value with no mathematical calculations whatsoever, just the laws of physics in action in fulfillment of the definition of RMS. The accuracy of this type of RMS measurement is independent of waveshape.

In addition to RMS, average, peak crest , and peak-to-peak measures of an AC waveform, there are ratios expressing the proportionality between some of these fundamental measurements.

Upload document Create flashcards. Flashcards Collections. Documents Last activity. AC Magnitude and Phase Objectives: Today's experiment provides practical experience with the meaning of magnitude and phase in a linear circuits and the use of phasor algebra to predict the response of a linear system to a sinusoidal input.

Using the digital oscilloscopes, we can better understand the true implications of amplitude and phase. Vmax 2. Vrms 5. Set the output impedance of the function generator to Hi-Z mode. Using any method, set the waveform generator for mV pk-pk using a Hz sine wave.

Enter these values on the data sheet. Construct the RC circuit illustrated in Figure 1. When using the probes, use common sense precautions to avoid damaging the sensitive contacts and clips. Figure 1. The first positive peak for v1 occurs before the first positive peak of v2 so v1 leads v2.

Page 1 of 4 NOTE: If the displayed wave is extremely jumpy, the problem is generally faulty leads or an ungrounded probe. If you cannot remedy the problem, ask for assistance. Figure 2: The RC Circuit 5. The display itself has a natural coarseness, which can be reduced by selecting the Average function.

Try to use as few samples as possible to avoid long delays while moving from one display to another. Averaging is a way to pull a repetitive signal out of the background noise. It works better than a bandwidth limit or brightness control because the bandwidth is not reduced. The oscilloscope acquires the signal every 5 ns. The smoothing function uses two acquisitions to display one signal. The trigger is what tells the scope when to display the signal. Which channel appears to display the greater peak magnitude?

Use the measure function to determine the Voltage pk-pk amplitudes for both channels, and record in the data sheet. AC Phasor analysis can determine the Complex Gain as a function of radian frequency. Use measured values of your resistor and capacitor components to determine theoretical gain.

Measure the frequency in Hz using your oscilloscope and calculate the radian frequency. Record the frequency, radian frequency, and theoretical gain value on your data sheet. Show all calculations in your lab report. Calculate the ratio of the CH1 and CH2 pk-pk measurements to determine the measured gain and record on your data sheet.

We can also measure the phase. Position the time cursors on corresponding zero crossings or peaks of the CH-1 and CH-2 waveforms. Record these values on the data sheet. Indeed there is. There is an effect of electromagnetism known as mutual induction , whereby two or more coils of wire placed so that the changing magnetic field created by one induces a voltage in the other. If we have two mutually inductive coils and we energize one coil with AC, we will create an AC voltage in the other coil.

When used as such, this device is known as a transformer : Figure below. The fundamental significance of a transformer is its ability to step voltage up or down from the powered coil to the unpowered coil. If the secondary coil is powering a load, the current through the secondary coil is just the opposite: primary coil current multiplied by the ratio of primary to secondary turns. This relationship has a very close mechanical analogy, using torque and speed to represent voltage and current, respectively: Figure below.

Speed multiplication gear train steps torque down and speed up. Step-down transformer steps voltage down and current up. Speed reduction gear train steps torque up and speed down. Step-up transformer steps voltage up and current down. The transformer's ability to step AC voltage up or down with ease gives AC an advantage unmatched by DC in the realm of power distribution in figure below.

When transmitting electrical power over long distances, it is far more efficient to do so with stepped-up voltages and stepped-down currents smaller-diameter wire with less resistive power losses , then step the voltage back down and the current back up for industry, business, or consumer use.

Transformer technology has made long-range electric power distribution practical. Without the ability to efficiently step voltage up and down, it would be cost-prohibitive to construct power systems for anything but close-range within a few miles at most use.

As useful as transformers are, they only work with AC, not DC. Because the phenomenon of mutual inductance relies on changing magnetic fields, and direct current DC can only produce steady magnetic fields, transformers simply will not work with direct current. Of course, direct current may be interrupted pulsed through the primary winding of a transformer to create a changing magnetic field as is done in automotive ignition systems to produce high-voltage spark plug power from a low-voltage DC battery , but pulsed DC is not that different from AC.

Perhaps more than any other reason, this is why AC finds such widespread application in power systems. When an alternator produces AC voltage, the voltage switches polarity over time, but does so in a very particular manner. The reason why an electromechanical alternator outputs sine-wave AC is due to the physics of its operation. The voltage produced by the stationary coils by the motion of the rotating magnet is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic flux is changing perpendicular to the coils Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction.

That rate is greatest when the magnet poles are closest to the coils, and least when the magnet poles are furthest away from the coils. Mathematically, the rate of magnetic flux change due to a rotating magnet follows that of a sine function, so the voltage produced by the coils follows that same function.

If we were to follow the changing voltage produced by a coil in an alternator from any point on the sine wave graph to that point when the wave shape begins to repeat itself, we would have marked exactly one cycle of that wave. This is most easily shown by spanning the distance between identical peaks, but may be measured between any corresponding points on the graph. The degree marks on the horizontal axis of the graph represent the domain of the trigonometric sine function, and also the angular position of our simple two-pole alternator shaft as it rotates: Figure below.

Since the horizontal axis of this graph can mark the passage of time as well as shaft position in degrees, the dimension marked for one cycle is often measured in a unit of time, most often seconds or fractions of a second. When expressed as a measurement, this is often called the period of a wave. The period of a wave in degrees is always , but the amount of time one period occupies depends on the rate voltage oscillates back and forth.

A more popular measure for describing the alternating rate of an AC voltage or current wave than period is the rate of that back-and-forth oscillation. This is called frequency. The modern unit for frequency is the Hertz abbreviated Hz , which represents the number of wave cycles completed during one second of time. In the United States of America, the standard power-line frequency is 60 Hz, meaning that the AC voltage oscillates at a rate of 60 complete back-and-forth cycles every second.

In Europe, where the power system frequency is 50 Hz, the AC voltage only completes 50 cycles every second. A radio station transmitter broadcasting at a frequency of MHz generates an AC voltage oscillating at a rate of million cycles every second. Many people believe the change from self-explanatory units like CPS to Hertz constitutes a step backward in clarity. The name Celsius, on the other hand, gives no hint as to the unit's origin or meaning.

Period and frequency are mathematical reciprocals of one another. That is to say, if a wave has a period of 10 seconds, its frequency will be 0. An instrument called an oscilloscope , Figure below , is used to display a changing voltage over time on a graphical screen.

You may be familiar with the appearance of an ECG or EKG electrocardiograph machine, used by physicians to graph the oscillations of a patient's heart over time. The ECG is a special-purpose oscilloscope expressly designed for medical use.

General-purpose oscilloscopes have the ability to display voltage from virtually any voltage source, plotted as a graph with time as the independent variable. The relationship between period and frequency is very useful to know when displaying an AC voltage or current waveform on an oscilloscope screen. By measuring the period of the wave on the horizontal axis of the oscilloscope screen and reciprocating that time value in seconds , you can determine the frequency in Hertz.

Voltage and current are by no means the only physical variables subject to variation over time. Much more common to our everyday experience is sound , which is nothing more than the alternating compression and decompression pressure waves of air molecules, interpreted by our ears as a physical sensation. Because alternating current is a wave phenomenon, it shares many of the properties of other wave phenomena, like sound. For this reason, sound especially structured music provides an excellent analogy for relating AC concepts.

In musical terms, frequency is equivalent to pitch. Low-pitch notes such as those produced by a tuba or bassoon consist of air molecule vibrations that are relatively slow low frequency. High-pitch notes such as those produced by a flute or whistle consist of the same type of vibrations in the air, only vibrating at a much faster rate higher frequency. Figure below is a table showing the actual frequencies for a range of common musical notes.

Astute observers will notice that all notes on the table bearing the same letter designation are related by a frequency ratio of The same ratio holds true for the first A sharp Audibly, two notes whose frequencies are exactly double each other sound remarkably similar.

This similarity in sound is musically recognized, the shortest span on a musical scale separating such note pairs being called an octave. A view of a piano keyboard helps to put this scale into perspective: Figure below.

As you can see, one octave is equal to seven white keys' worth of distance on a piano keyboard. The familiar musical mnemonic doe-ray-mee-fah-so-lah-tee -- yes, the same pattern immortalized in the whimsical Rodgers and Hammerstein song sung in The Sound of Music -- covers one octave from C to C. While electromechanical alternators and many other physical phenomena naturally produce sine waves, this is not the only kind of alternating wave in existence. Here are but a few sample waveforms and their common designations in figure below.

These waveforms are by no means the only kinds of waveforms in existence. They're simply a few that are common enough to have been given distinct names. Generally speaking, any waveshape bearing close resemblance to a perfect sine wave is termed sinusoidal , anything different being labeled as non-sinusoidal. Being that the waveform of an AC voltage or current is crucial to its impact in a circuit, we need to be aware of the fact that AC waves come in a variety of shapes.

So far we know that AC voltage alternates in polarity and AC current alternates in direction. However, we encounter a measurement problem if we try to express how large or small an AC quantity is. With DC, where quantities of voltage and current are generally stable, we have little trouble expressing how much voltage or current we have in any part of a circuit. But how do you grant a single measurement of magnitude to something that is constantly changing?

One way to express the intensity, or magnitude also called the amplitude , of an AC quantity is to measure its peak height on a waveform graph. This is known as the peak or crest value of an AC waveform: Figure below. Another way is to measure the total height between opposite peaks. Unfortunately, either one of these expressions of waveform amplitude can be misleading when comparing two different types of waves.

For example, a square wave peaking at 10 volts is obviously a greater amount of voltage for a greater amount of time than a triangle wave peaking at 10 volts. The effects of these two AC voltages powering a load would be quite different: Figure below. One way of expressing the amplitude of different waveshapes in a more equivalent fashion is to mathematically average the values of all the points on a waveform's graph to a single, aggregate number. This amplitude measure is known simply as the average value of the waveform.

If we average all the points on the waveform algebraically that is, to consider their sign , either positive or negative , the average value for most waveforms is technically zero, because all the positive points cancel out all the negative points over a full cycle: Figure below. In other words, we calculate the practical average value of the waveform by considering all points on the wave as positive quantities, as if the waveform looked like this: Figure below.

Conversely, polarity-sensitive meter movements vibrate uselessly if exposed to AC voltage or current, their needles oscillating rapidly about the zero mark, indicating the true algebraic average value of zero for a symmetrical waveform. Another method of deriving an aggregate value for waveform amplitude is based on the waveform's ability to do useful work when applied to a load resistance.

Although the mathematics of such an amplitude measurement might not be straightforward, the utility of it is. Consider a bandsaw and a jigsaw, two pieces of modern woodworking equipment. Both types of saws cut with a thin, toothed, motor-powered metal blade to cut wood. But while the bandsaw uses a continuous motion of the blade to cut, the jigsaw uses a back-and-forth motion. The comparison of alternating current AC to direct current DC may be likened to the comparison of these two saw types: Figure below.

The problem of trying to describe the changing quantities of AC voltage or current in a single, aggregate measurement is also present in this saw analogy: how might we express the speed of a jigsaw blade? A bandsaw blade moves with a constant speed, similar to the way DC voltage pushes or DC current moves with a constant magnitude. A jigsaw blade, on the other hand, moves back and forth, its blade speed constantly changing. What is more, the back-and-forth motion of any two jigsaws may not be of the same type, depending on the mechanical design of the saws.

One jigsaw might move its blade with a sine-wave motion, while another with a triangle-wave motion. To rate a jigsaw based on its peak blade speed would be quite misleading when comparing one jigsaw to another or a jigsaw with a bandsaw! Despite the fact that these different saws move their blades in different manners, they are equal in one respect: they all cut wood, and a quantitative comparison of this common function can serve as a common basis for which to rate blade speed.

Picture a jigsaw and bandsaw side-by-side, equipped with identical blades same tooth pitch, angle, etc. We might say that the two saws were equivalent or equal in their cutting capacity. More specifically, we would denote its voltage value as being 10 volts RMS.

RMS amplitude measurement is the best way to relate AC quantities to DC quantities, or other AC quantities of differing waveform shapes, when dealing with measurements of electric power. For other considerations, peak or peak-to-peak measurements may be the best to employ. For instance, when determining the proper size of wire ampacity to conduct electric power from a source to a load, RMS current measurement is the best to use, because the principal concern with current is overheating of the wire, which is a function of power dissipation caused by current through the resistance of the wire.